Internationalization (i18n)

What is internationlization (i18n)?

To over simplify the concept a bit, internalization (i18n for short) is the process of making the platform more user-friendly in various languages for people around the globe. This includes, but is certainly not limited to, things like making the site available in different languages, changing currency values to match your region, changing date formats, etc.

What do we currently support?

We introduced some routing to lay the groundwork for a more comprehensive i18n implementation.

What is the goal?

We want everyone to feel included, regardless of where they're located or what language(s) they speak. The goal is to make the platform available in various languages.

How do you get involved?

The following is a high level outline of an approach to internationalization. This is by no means set in stone.

We encourage you to open a pull request (PR) to this documentation or to contribute to internationalization with your ideas - we're open-source!


We have logic for routes setup. You can visit a page and add /locale/:locale to the beginning of the path. For example, if you visit the homepage, you can add /locale/fr-ca for French, Canadian where fr is the language code and ca is the region code.

Setting up languages under this "sub-folder" approach helps with Search Engine Optimization (SEO), routing, and more.

Currently, the various language routes will not do anything - it will stil show the site in English (US).

Once i18n is up and running, users will be able to select their preferred language to view the platform in. These routes will be the location of various languages.

Translating content

There are many ways to translate static content on the platform. To start, we can explore tools like i18n-tasks which also has an option to leverage Google Translate programmatically. We'll need to create locale files (likely .yml) to house the translations.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

It seems search engines, especially Google, don't particularly like content on a page to be in multiple languages. To account for this on pages like articles, we can try an approach using the canonical URL for the language the article was written in.

For example, if we detect an article is written in Spanish, we can set the canonical URL for that article to be /locale/es/username/article-slug. We can then hide comments that are not in the same language as the article/rest of the page (Spanish in this example) only for the views the crawlers would see. That way, when the search engine crawler hits an article written in Spanish, the crawler will see the entire page in Spanish. We will not hide comments for the views that real users see.


The platform relies on edge caching, especially with regards to articles. To account for this, we'll need to add logic at the edge that understands what languages the platform currently supports and where to look up the language variant in the cache.

If the edge doesn't pick up on a user selected preference (possibly sent as an additional header or cookie), the edge will look at the Accept-Language header and normalize it. The header can include more specific preferences and look something like: Accept-Language: fr-ca, fr;q=0.9, en;q=0.8, de;q=0.7, *;q=0.5. There are 2 things going on here. 1) A user can specify country/region variants for a language - fr-ca (French - Canada) and fr-fr (French - France). For simplicity's sake, we want to normalize that sort of preference to fr to start. 2) A user can specify priority using the q argument. We'll want to interpret the user's priority preferences to match their highest priority language with one we currently support.

Once the edge is aware of what language it should be looking for, it will set the cache key accordingly.

We also make use of fragment caching in several places. We need to update the keys for those caches to account for locale so we're not mistakenly serving a cached fragment in a different language than intended.

Additional considerations

  • Translating URLs. For the best SEO result, we should also translate URLs themselves into various languages. Something like the /about page could be translated, for example. For now, we aren't going to account for this.
  • Translating dynamic/user generated content. For now, we plan to not automatically translate any dynamic/user generated content (articles, comments, listings, etc.). In the future we could explore what that looks like, how a user can opt-in/out of that, etc.

Styles, design, and UI

We'll want to expand some design aspects to support other languages that may be right-to-left, have different spacings, have special characters, etc.

Next steps

A few next steps we can take on the road to internationalization.

  • Update our logic to allow special characters/encodings in URLs. Currently, we generate slugs on dynamic content like articles and tags that may include characters that make the URL invalid.Here is a good example. We want to update this logic so these characters work in URLs as expected.
  • Allow Forem Admins to set a "default language". Currently, if a user doesn't select a language preference, it defaults to English ("en").
  • Clean up some code. There are some places we're hard-coding strings on the frontend. We'll want to explore moving that sort data to the backend to unify where and how we're translating.
  • Translate areas of the site into English (US) first to ensure things are still working. In other words, have the platform adhere to the default locale instead of hard-coded strings.
  • Start translating!